Software Engineerig-White Box Testing

White-box testing, sometimes called glass-box testing, is a test case design method that uses the control structure of the procedural design to derive test cases. Using white-box testing methods, the software engineer can derive test cases that (1) guarantee that all independent paths within a module have been exercised at least once, (2) exercise all logical decisions on their true and false sides, (3) execute all loops at their boundaries and within their operational bounds, and (4) exercise internal data structures to ensure their validity.

A reasonable question might be posed at this juncture: "Why spend time and energy worrying about (and testing) logical minutiae when we might better expend effort ensuring that program requirements have been met?" Stated another way, why don't we spend all of our energy on black-box tests? The answer lies in the nature of software defects :

• Logic errors and incorrect assumptions are inversely proportional to the probability that a program path will be executed. Errors tend to creep into our work when we design and implement function, conditions, or control that are out of the mainstream. Everyday processing tends to be well understood (and well scrutinized), while "special case" processing tends to fall into the cracks.

• We often believe that a logical path is not likely to be executed when, in fact, it may be executed on a regular basis. The logical flow of a program is sometimes counterintuitive, meaning that our unconscious assumptions about flow of control and data may lead us to make design errors that are uncovered only once path testing commences.

• Typographical errors are random. When a program is translated into programming language source code, it is likely that some typing errors will occur. Many will be uncovered by syntax and type checking mechanisms, but others may go undetected until testing begins. It is as likely that a typo will exist on an obscure logical path as on a mainstream path.

Each of these reasons provides an argument for conducting white-box tests. Blackbox testing, no matter how thorough, may miss the kinds of errors noted here. Whitebox testing is far more likely to uncover them.
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