Software Engineering-Decomposition Techniques


Software project estimation is a form of problem solving, and in most cases, the problem to be solved (i.e., developing a cost and effort estimate for a software project) is too complex to be considered in one piece. For this reason, we decompose the problem, recharacterizing it as a set of smaller (and hopefully, more manageable) problems.

The decomposition approach was discussed from two different points of view: decomposition of the problem and decomposition of the process. Estimation uses one or both forms of partitioning. But before an estimate can be made, the project planner must understand the scope of the software to be built and generate an estimate of its “size.”

Software Sizing

The accuracy of a software project estimate is predicated on a number of things: (1)the degree to which the planner has properly estimated the size of the product to be built; (2) the ability to translate the size estimate into human effort, calendar time, and dollars (a function of the availability of reliable software metrics from past projects); (3) the degree to which the project plan reflects the abilities of the software team; and (4) the stability of product requirements and the environment that supports
the software engineering effort.

 Because a project estimate is only as good as the estimate of the size of the work to be accomplished, sizing represents the project planner’s first major challenge. In the context of project planning, size refers to a quantifiable outcome of the software project. If a direct approach is taken, size can be measured in LOC. If an indirect approach is chosen, size is represented as FP.
Putnam and Myers  suggest four different approaches to the sizing problem:
“Fuzzy logic” sizing. This approach uses the approximate reasoning techniques that are the cornerstone of fuzzy logic. To apply this approach, the planner must identify the type of application, establish its magnitude on a qualitative scale, and then refine the magnitude within the original range. Although personal experience can be used, the planner should also have access to a historical database of projects8 so that estimates can be compared to actual experience.

Function point sizing. The planner develops estimates of the information domain characteristics.
Standard component sizing. Software is composed of a number of different “standard components” that are generic to a particular application area. For example, the standard components for an information system are subsystems, modules, screens, reports, interactive programs, batch programs, files, LOC, and object-level instructions. The project planner estimates the number of occurrences of each standard component and then uses historical project data to determine the delivered size per standard component. To illustrate, consider an information systems application. The planner estimates that 18 reports will be generated. Historical data indicates that 967 lines of COBOL  are required per report. This enables the planner to estimate that 17,000 LOC will be required for the reports component. Similar estimates and computation are made for other standard components, and a combined size value (adjusted statistically) results.

Change sizing. This approach is used when a project encompasses the use of existing software that must be modified in some way as part of a project. The planner estimates the number and type (e.g., reuse, adding code, changing code, deleting code) of modifications that must be accomplished. Using an “effort ratio” for each type of change, the size of the change may be estimated.

Putnam and Myers suggest that the results of each of these sizing approaches be combined statistically to create a three-point or expected value estimate.
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