Software Engineering-Object Oriented Analysis

When a new product or system is to be built, how do we characterize it in a way that is amenable to object-oriented software engineering? Are there special questions that we need to ask the customer? What are the relevant objects? How do they relate to one another? How do objects behave in the context of the system? How do we specify or model a problem so that we can create an effective design?

Each of these questions is answered within the context of object-oriented analysis (OOA)—the first technical activity that is performed as part of OO software engineering. Instead of examining a problem using the classic information flow model, OOA introduces a number of new concepts. Coad and Yourdon  consider this issue when they write:

OOA—object-oriented analysis—is based upon concepts that we first learned in kindergarten: objects and attributes, classes and members, wholes and parts. Why it has taken us so long to apply these concepts to the analysis and specification of information systems is anyone's guess . . 
OOA is grounded in a set of basic principles . In order to build an analysis model, five basic principles were applied: (1) the information domain is modeled; (2) function is described; (3) behavior is represented; (4) data, functional, and behavioral models are partitioned to expose greater detail; and (5) early models represent the essence of the problem while later models provide implementation details. These principles form the foundation for the approach to OOA.

The intent of OOA is to define all classes that are relevant to the problem to be solved—the operations and attributes associated with them, the relationships between them, and behavior they exhibit. To accomplish this, a number of tasks must occur:

1. Basic user requirements must be communicated between the customer and the software engineer.
2. Classes must be identified (i.e., attributes and methods are defined).
3. A class hierarchy must be specified. 
4. Object-to-object relationships (object connections) should be represented.
5. Object behavior must be modeled.
6. Tasks 1 through 5 are reapplied iteratively until the model is complete.
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