Software Enigneering-Design Evaluation


Once an operational user interface prototype has been created, it must be evaluated to determine whether it meets the needs of the user. Evaluation can span a formality spectrum that ranges from an informal "test drive," in which a user provides impromptu feedback to a formally designed study that uses statistical methods for the evaluation of questionnaires completed by a population of end-users.

The user interface evaluation cycle takes the form shown in figure. After the design model has been completed, a first-level prototype is created. The prototype is evaluated by the user, who provides the designer with direct comments about the efficacy of the interface. In addition, if formal evaluation techniques are used (e.g., questionnaires, rating sheets), the designer may extract information from these data (e.g., 80 percent of all users did not like the mechanism for saving data files). Design modifications are made based on user input and the next level prototype is created. The evaluation cycle continues until no further modifications to the interface design are necessary.

The prototyping approach is effective, but is it possible to evaluate the quality of a user interface before a prototype is built? If potential problems can be uncovered and corrected early, the number of loops through the evaluation cycle will be reduced and development time will shorten. If a design model of the interface has been created, a number of evaluation criteria can be applied during early design reviews:

1. The length and complexity of the written specification of the system and its interface provide an indication of the amount of learning required by users of the system.
2. The number of user tasks specified and the average number of actions per task provide an indication of interaction time and the overall efficiency of the system.
3. The number of actions, tasks, and system states indicated by the design model imply the memory load on users of the system.
4. Interface style, help facilities, and error handling protocol provide a general indication of the complexity of the interface and the degree to which it will be accepted by the user.

Once the first prototype is built, the designer can collect a variety of qualitative and quantitative data that will assist in evaluating the interface. To collect qualitative data, questionnaires can be distributed to users of the prototype. Questions can be all (1) simple yes/no response, (2) numeric response, (3) scaled (subjective) response, or (4) percentage (subjective) response. Examples are
1. Were the icons self-explanatory? If not, which icons were unclear?
2. Were the actions easy to remember and to invoke?
3. How many different actions did you use?
4. How easy was it to learn basic system operations (scale 1 to 5)?
5. Compared to other interfaces you've used, how would this rate—top 1%, top 10%, top 25%, top 50%, bottom 50%?

If quantitative data are desired, a form of time study analysis can be conducted. Users are observed during interaction, and data—such as number of tasks correctly completed over a standard time period, frequency of actions, sequence of actions, time spent "looking" at the display, number and types of errors, error recovery time, time spent using help, and number of help references per standard time period—are collected and used as a guide for interface modification.
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