History of Operating systems

The 1940’s and the 1950’s:

Operating system have evolved over the last 40 years through a number of distinct phases or generations. In the 1940’s , the earlist electronic digital computers had no operating system. Machines of the time programs were entered one bit at a time on rows of mechanical switches. Machine language programs were entered on punched cards, and assembly languages were developed to speed the programming process.

The general motors research laboratories implemented the first operating system in the early 1990’s for their IBM 701.The systems of the 1950’s generally ram only one job at a time and smoothed the transition between jobs to get maximum initialization of the computer system. these were called single-stream batch processing system because programs and data were submitted in groups or batches.

The 1960’s:

The systems of the 1960’s were also batch processing systems, but they were able to take better advantage of the computer’s resources by running several jobs at once. They contained many peripheral devices such as card readers, card punches, printers, tape drives and disk drives. Any one job rarely utilised all a computer’s resources effectively. Operating system designers that when one job was waiting for an i/o operation to complete before the job could continue using the processor, some other job could use the idle processor. Similarly, when one job was using the processor other job could be using the various input /output devices. In fact running a mixture of diverse jobs appeared to be the best way to optimize computer utilization. So operating system designers developed the concept of in which several jobs are in main memory at once, a processor is switched from job to job as needed to keep several jobs advancing while keeping the peripheral devices in use.

More advanced operating system were developed to service multiple interactive users at once. Timesharing systems were developed to multi program large numbers of simultaneous interactive users. Many of the time-sharing systems of the 1960’s were multimode systems also supporting batch processing as well as real-time application. Real-time systems are characterized by supplying immediate response. The key time-sharing development efforts of this period included the CTSS system developed at MIT, the TSS system developed by IBM, the multics system developed at MIT, as the successor to CTSS turn around time that is the time between submission of a job and the return of results, was reduced to minutes or even seconds.
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