OS-Emergence of new field:Software Engineering

The operating system developed during the 1960’s endless hours and countless dollars were spent detecting and removing bugs that should never have entered the systems in the first place. So much attention was given to these problems of constructing software systems. This spawned the field of engineering is developing a disciplined and structured approach to the construction of reliable, understandable and maintainable software.

The 1970’s:

The systems of the 1970’s were primarily multimode timesharing systems that supported batch processing, time - sharing, and real-time applications. Personal computing was in its incipient stages. Communication in local area networks was made practical and economical by the ethernet. Security problems increased with the huge volumes of information passing over vulnerable communication lines. Encryption and decrytion received much attention.

The 1980’s:

The 1980’s was the decade of the personal computer and the workstation. Individuals could have their own dedicated computers for performing the bulk of their work, and they use communication facilities for transmitting data between systems. Computing was distributed to the sites at which it was needed rather than bringing the data to be processed to some central, large - scale, computer installation. The key was to transfer information between computers in computer networks. E-mail file transfer and remote database access applications and client/server model become widespread.

The 1990’s and beyond:

In 1990’s the distributed computing were used in which computations will be paralleled into sub - computations that can be executed on other processors in multiprocessor computers and in computer networks. Networks will be dynamically configured new devices and s/w are added/removed. When new server is added, it will make itself known to the server tells the networks about its capabilities, billing policies accessibility and forth client need not know all the details of the networks instead they contact locating brokers for the services provided by servers. The locating brokers know which servers are available, where they are, and how to access them. This kind of connectivity will be facilitated by open system standards and protocols.

Computing is destined to become very powerful and very portable. In recent years, laptop computers have been introduced that enable people to carry their computers with them where ever they go. With the development of OSI communication protocols, integrated services digital network (ISDN) people will be able to communicate and transmit data worldwide with high reliability.
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