SQL-Complete Reference for Beginners

SQL ( Structured Query Language) is a special-purpose programming language designed for managing data in relational database management systems (RDBMS).
Originally based upon relational algebra and tuple relational calculus, its scope includes data Insert, query, Update and Delete schema creation and modification, and data access control.
SQL was one of the first commercial languages for Edgar F. Codd's relational model, as described in his influential 1970 paper, "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks". Despite not adhering to the relational model as described by Codd, it became the most widely used database language. Although SQL is often described as, and to a great extent is, a declarative language, it also includes procedural elements. SQL became a standard of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in 1986, and of the International Organization for Standards (ISO) in 1987. Since then, the standard has been enhanced several times with added features. However, issues of SQL code portability between major RDBMS products still exist due to lack of full compliance with, or different interpretations of, the standard. Among the reasons mentioned are the large size and incomplete specification of the standard, as well as vendor lock-in.

More into SQL Concepts and Implementation

  1. Introduction
  2. SQL Syntax and General Concepts
  3. SQL Data types

  SQL STATEMENTS and KEYWORDS

  1. SELECT Statement
  2. SELECT DISTINCT Statement
  3. INSERT Statement
  4. UPDATE Statement
  5. DELETE Statement
  6. GROUP BY Statement
  7. CREATE INDEX Statement
  8. DROP INDEX, TABLE AND DATABASE
  9. ALTER TABLE Statement
  10. AUTO INCREMENT FIELD
  11. SELECT INTO Statement
  12. CREATE DATABASE Statement
  13. CREATE TABLE Statement
  14. SQL ORDER BY Keyword
  15. WHERE Clause
  16. HAVING Clause

 SQL OPERATORS

  1. SQL AND and OR Operators
  2. FULL JOIN Keyword
  3. UNION Operator
  4. LIKE Operator
  5. IN Operator
  6. BETWEEN Operator
  7. SQL Alias
  8. JOIN 
  9. INNER JOIN 
  10. LEFT JOIN 
  11. RIGHT JOIN 

SQL FUNCTIONS

  1. ISNULL(), NVL(), IFNULL () and COALESCE () Functions
  2. SQL DATE FUNCTIONS
  3. SQL Functions Complete List 

SQL CONSTRAINTS

  1. SQL PRIMARY KEY Constraint
  2. SQL FOREIGN KEY Constraint
  3. SQL CHECK Constraint
  4. SQL DEFAULT Constraint
  5. SQL NOT NULL Constraint
  6. SQL UNIQUE Constraint
  7. SQL VIEWS
  8. NULL Values

SQL Commands Quick Reference 

  1. SQL COMMANDS Quick Reference
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