Software Engineering-Change Control

The reality of change control in a modern software engineering context has been summed up beautifully by James Bach :

Change control is vital. But the forces that make it necessary also make it annoying. We worry about change because a tiny perturbation in the code can create a big failure in the product. But it can also fix a big failure or enable wonderful new capabilities. We worry about change because a single rogue developer could sink the project; yet brilliant ideas originate in the minds of those rogues, and a burdensome change control process could effectively discourage them from doing creative work. 
Bach recognizes that we face a balancing act. Too much change control and we create problems. Too little, and we create other problems.

For a large software engineering project, uncontrolled change rapidly leads to chaos. For such projects, change control combines human procedures and automated tools to provide a mechanism for the control of change. The change control process is illustrated schematically in figure below. A change request is submitted and evaluated to assess technical merit, potential side effects, overall impact on other configuration objects and system functions, and the projected cost of the change. The results of the evaluation are presented as a change report, which is used by a change control authority (CCA)—a person or group who makes a final decision on the status and priority of the change. An engineering change order (ECO) is generated for each approved change. The ECO describes the change to be made, the constraints that must be respected, and the criteria for review and audit. The object to be changed is "checked out" of the project database, the change is made, and appropriate SQA activities are applied. The object is then "checked in" to the database and appropriate version control mechanisms  are used to create the next version of the software. 
The "check-in" and "check-out" process implements two important elements of change control—access control and synchronization control. Access control governs which software engineers have the authority to access and modify a particular configuration object. Synchronization control helps to ensure that parallel changes, performed
by two different people, don't overwrite one another .

Access and synchronization control flow are illustrated schematically in figure below. Based on an approved change request and ECO, a software engineer checks out a configuration object. An access control function ensures that the software engineer has authority to check out the object, and synchronization control locks the object in the project database so that no updates can be made to it until the currently checkedout version has been replaced. Note that other copies can be checked-out, but other updates cannot be made. A copy of the baselined object, called the extracted version,is modified by the software engineer. After appropriate SQA and testing, the modified version of the object is checked in and the new baseline object is unlocked.

Some readers may begin to feel uncomfortable with the level of bureaucracy implied by the change control process description. This feeling is not uncommon. Without proper safeguards, change control can retard progress and create unnecessary red tape. Most software developers who have change control mechanisms (unfortunately, many have none) have created a number of layers of control to help avoid the problems alluded to here.

Prior to an SCI becoming a baseline, only informal change control need be applied. The developer of the configuration object (SCI) in question may make whatever changes are justified by project and technical requirements (as long as changes do not affect broader system requirements that lie outside the developer's scope of work). Once the object has undergone formal technical review and has been approved, a baseline is created. Once an SCI becomes a baseline, project level change control is implemented. Now, to make a change, the developer must gain approval from the project manager (if the change is "local") or from the CCA if the change affects other SCIs. In some cases, formal generation of change requests, change reports, and ECOs is dispensed with. However, assessment of each change is conducted and all changes are tracked and reviewed.

When the software product is released to customers, formal change control is instituted. The formal change control procedure has been outlined in the above figure .
 The change control authority plays an active role in the second and third layers of control. Depending on the size and character of a software project, the CCA may be composed of one person—the project manager—or a number of people (e.g., representatives from software, hardware, database engineering, support, marketing). The role of the CCA is to take a global view, that is, to assess the impact of change beyond the SCI in question. How will the change affect hardware? How will the change affect performance? How will the change modify customer's perception of the product? How will the change affect product quality and reliability? These and many other questions are addressed by the CCA.
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