Software Engineering-Refining the Architectural Design

Successful application of transform or transaction mapping is supplemented by additional documentation that is required as part of architectural design. After the program structure has been developed and refined, the following tasks must be completed:
A processing narrative must be developed for each module.
An interface description is provided for each module.
Local and global data structures are defined.
All design restrictions and limitations are noted.
A set of design reviews are conducted.
Refinement is considered (if required and justified).

A processing narrative is (ideally) an unambiguous, bounded description of processing that occurs within a module. The narrative describes processing tasks, decisions, and I/O. The interface description describes the design of internal module interfaces, external system interfaces, and the human/computer interface . The design of data structures can have a profound impact on architecture and the procedural details for each software component. Restrictions and/or limitations for each module are also documented. Typical topics for discussion include restriction on data type or format, memory or timing limitations; bounding values or quantities of data structures; special cases not considered; specific characteristics of an individual module. The purpose of a restrictions and limitations section is to reduce the number of errors introduced because of assumed functional characteristics.
Once design documentation has been developed for all modules, one or more design reviews is conducted. The review emphasizes traceability to software requirements, quality of the software architecture, interface descriptions, data structure descriptions, implementation and test practicality, and maintainability.

Any discussion of design refinement should be prefaced with the following comment: "Remember that an 'optimal design' that doesn't work has questionable merit." The software designer should be concerned with developing a representation of software that will meet all functional and performance requirements and merit acceptance based on design measures and heuristics.

Refinement of software architecture during early stages of design is to be encouraged. Alternative architectural styles may be derived, refined, and evaluated for the "best" approach. This approach to optimization is one of the true benefits derived by developing a representation of software architecture.

It is important to note that structural simplicity often reflects both elegance and efficiency. Design refinement should strive for the smallest number of modules that is consistent with effective modularity and the least complex data structure that adequately serves information requirements.
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