Software Engineering-The Case Repository

Webster's Dictionary defines the word repository as "any thing or person thought of as a center of accumulation or storage." ...

Webster's Dictionary defines the word repository as "any thing or person thought of as a center of accumulation or storage." During the early history of software development, the repository was indeed a person—the programmer who had to remember the location of all information relevant to a software project, who had to recall information that was never written down and reconstruct information that had been lost. Sadly, using a person as "the center for accumulation and storage" (although it conforms to Webster's definition), does not work very well. Today, the repository is a "thing"—a database that acts as the center for both accumulation and storage of software engineering information. The role of the person (the software engineer) is to interact with the repository using CASE tools that are integrated with it.

A number of different terms have been used to refer to the storage place for software engineering information: CASE database, project database, integrated project support environment (IPSE) database, requirements dictionary (a limited database), and repository. Although there are subtle differences between some of these terms, all refer to the center for accumulation and storage.

The Role of the Repository in I-CASE

The repository for an I-CASE environment is the set of mechanisms and data structures that achieve data/tool and data/data integration. It provides the obvious functions of a database management system, but in addition, the repository performs or precipitates the following functions :

• Data integrity includes functions to validate entries to the repository, ensure consistency among related objects, and automatically perform "cascading" modifications when a change to one object demands some change to objects related to it.

• Information sharing provides a mechanism for sharing information among multiple developers and between multiple tools, manages and controls multiuser access to data and locks or unlocks objects so that changes are not inadvertently overlaid on one another.

• Data/tool integration establishes a data model that can be accessed by all tools in the I-CASE environment, controls access to the data, and performs appropriate configuration management functions.

• Data/data integration is the database management system that relates data objects so that other functions can be achieved.

• Methodology enforcement defines an entity-relationship model stored in the repository that implies a specific paradigm for software engineering; at a minimum, the relationships and objects define a set of steps that must be conducted to build the contents of the repository.

• Document standardization is the definition of objects in the database that leads directly to a standard approach for the creation of software engineering documents.

To achieve these functions, the repository is defined in terms of a meta-model. The meta-model determines how information is stored in the repository, how data can be accessed by tools and viewed by software engineers, how well data security and integrity can be maintained, and how easily the existing model can be extended to accommodate new needs . The meta-model is the template into which software engineering information is placed.

Features and Content

The features and content of the repository are best understood by looking at it from two perspectives: what is to be stored in the repository and what specific services are provided by the repository. In general, the types of things to be stored in the repository include

The problem to be solved.
Information about the problem domain.
The system solution as it emerges.
Rules and instructions pertaining to the software process (methodology) being followed.
The project plan, resources, and history.
Information about the organizational context.

A detailed list of types of representations, documents and deliverables that are stored in the CASE repository is included in table below.

A robust CASE repository provides two different classes of services: (1) the same types of services that might be expected from any sophisticated database management system and (2) services that are specific to the CASE environment.

Many repository requirements are the same as those of typical applications built on a commercial database management system (DBMS). In fact, most of today's CASE repositories employ a DBMS (usually relational or object oriented) as the basic data management technology. The DBMS features that support the management of software development information include

• Nonredundant data storage. Each object is stored only once, but is accessible by all CASE tools that need it.

• High-level access. A common data access mechanism is implemented so data handling facilities do not have to be duplicated in each CASE tool.

• Data independence. CASE tools and the target applications are isolated from physical storage so they are not affected when the hardware configuration is changed.

• Transaction control.
The repository implements record locking, two-stage commits, transaction logging, and recovery procedures to maintain the integrity of the data when there are concurrent users.

• Security. The repository provides mechanisms to control who can view and modify information contained within it.

• Ad hoc data queries and reports. The repository allows direct access to its contents through a convenient user interface such as SQL or a formsoriented "browser," enabling user-defined analysis beyond the standard reports provided with the CASE tool set.

• Openness. Repositories usually provide a simple import/export mechanism to enable bulk loading or transfer.

• Multiuser support. A robust repository must permit multiple developers to work on an application at the same time. It must manage concurrent access to the database by multiple tools and users with access arbitration and locking at the file or record level. For environments based on networking, multiuser support also implies that the repository can interface with common networking protocols (object request brokers) and facilities.

The CASE environment also places special demands on the repository that go beyond what is directly available in a commercial DBMS. The special features of CASE repositories include

• Storage of sophisticated data structures. The repository must accommodate complex data types such as diagrams, documents, and files, as well as simple data elements. A repository also includes an information model (or metamodel) describing the structure, relationships and semantics of the data stored in it. The meta-model must be extensible so that new representations and unique organizational information can be accommodated. The repository not only stores models and descriptions of systems under development, but also associated meta-data (i.e., additional information describing the software engineering data itself, such as when a particular design component was created, what its current status is, and what other components it depends upon).

• Integrity enforcement. The repository information model also contains rules, or policies, describing valid business rules and other constraints and requirements on information being entered into the repository (directly or via a CASE tool). A facility called a trigger may be employed to activate the rules associated with an object whenever it is modified, making it possible to check the validity of design models in real time.

• Semantics-rich tool interface. The repository information model (meta-model) contains semantics that enable a variety of tools to interpret the meaning of the data stored in the repository. For example, a data flow diagram created by a CASE tool is stored in the repository in a form based on the information model and independent of any internal representations used by the tool itself. Another CASE tool can then interpret the contents of the repository and use the information as needed for its task. Thus, the semantics stored in the repository permit data sharing among a variety of tools, as opposed to specific tool-to-tool conversions or "bridges."

• Process/project management. A repository contains information not only about the software application itself, but also about the characteristics of each particular project and the organization's general process for software development (phases, tasks, and deliverables). This opens up possibilities for
automated coordination of technical development activity with the project management activity. For example, updating the status of project tasks could be done automatically or as a by-product of using the CASE tools. Status updating can be made very easy for developers to perform without having to leave the normal development environment. Task assignment and queries can also be handled by e-mail. Problem reports, maintenance tasks, change authorization, and repair status can be coordinated and monitored via tools accessing the repository.

The following repository features are all encompassed by software configuration management .They are re-examined here to emphasize their interrelationship to I-CASE environments:

Versioning. As a project progresses, many versions of individual work products will be created. The repository must be able to save all of these versions to enable effective management of product releases and to permit developers to go back to previous versions during testing and debugging.

The CASE repository must be able to control a wide variety of object types, including text, graphics, bit maps, complex documents, and unique objects like screen and report definitions, object files, test data, and results. A mature repository tracks versions of objects with arbitrary levels of granularity, for example, a single data definition or a cluster of modules can be tracked.

To support parallel development, the version control mechanism should permit multiple derivatives (variants) from a single predecessor. Thus, a developer could be working on two possible solutions to a design problem at the same time, both generated from the same starting point.

Dependency tracking and change management. The repository manages a wide variety of relationships among the data elements stored in it. These include relationships between enterprise entities and processes, among the parts of an application design, between design components and the enterprise information architecture, between design elements and deliverables, and so on. Some of these relationships are merely associations, and some are dependencies or mandatory relationships. Maintaining these relationships among development objects is called link management.

The ability to keep track of all of these relationships is crucial to the integrity of the information stored in the repository and to the generation of deliverables based on it, and it is one of the most important contributions of the repository concept to the improvement of the software development process. Among the many functions that link management supports is the ability to identify and assess the effects of change. As designs evolve to meet new requirements, the ability to identify all objects that might be affected enables more accurate assessment of cost, downtime, and degree of difficulty. It also helps prevent unexpected side effects that would otherwise lead to defects and system failures.

Link management helps the repository mechanism ensure that design information is correct by keeping the various portions of a design synchronized. For example, if a data flow diagram is modified, the repository can detect whether related data dictionaries, screen definitions, and code modules also require modification and can bring affected components to the developer's attention.

Requirements tracing. This special function depends on link management and provides the ability to track all the design components and deliverables that result from a specific requirement specification (forward tracking). In addition, it provides the ability to identify which requirement generated any given deliverable (backward tracking).

Configuration management. A configuration management facility works closely with the link management and versioning facilities to keep track of a series of configurations representing specific project milestones or production releases. Version management provides the needed versions, and link management keeps track of interdependencies.

Audit trails. An audit trail establishes additional information about when, why, and by whom changes are made. Information about the source of changes can be entered as attributes of specific objects in the repository. A repository trigger mechanism is helpful for prompting the developer or the tool that is being used to initiate entry of audit information (such as the reason for a change) whenever a design element is modified.

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Software Engineering-The Case Repository
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